# Chapter 02: Components of Food

I. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs).
Q.1. The primary source of energy is
a) carbohydrates
b) fats
c) proteins
d) all of these

Q.2. The body-building food is
a) carbohydrates
b) fats
c) proteins
d) vitamins
Q.3. The fat soluble vitamin is
a) vitamin A
b) vitamin B
c) vitamin C
d) all of these

Q.4. For maintaining healthy bones and teeth, we require
a) calcium
b) phosphorus
c) both a) and b)
d) iron
Answer c) both a) and b)
Q.5. The dietary fibre component of our food is
a) minerals and salts
b) roughage
c) proteins
d) all of these

II. Fill in the blanks by selecting appropriate words from the given list :
List : Water, obesity, cooked, nutrients, diabetes
Q.1. All kinds of _____________ cannot be normally present in one kind of food.
Q.2. The excess amount of sugar in our blood results into a disease called __________ .
Q.3. Eating too much fat-rich food leads to _______________.
Q.4. _______________ sustains life process.
Q.5. Food is _______________ to make it easy to eat, digest and to kill germs.

2) diabetes
3) obesity,
4) Water
5) cooked

III. Match the items of Column A with those of Column B.

Ans 1-(a) , 2-(c) 3-(a) 4-(c), 5-(b)

IV. Write ‘T’ for the true and ‘F’ for the false statements.
Q.1. Food contains special components called nutrients.
Q.2. Sugar and starch are two major types of fats in our food.
Q.3. Proteins make new cells, replace old and damaged cells.
Q.4. Fats provide less energy as compared to carbohydrates.
Q.5. Our body prepares vitamin D in the presence of sunlight.

Answer: 1- T, 2-F, 3-T, 4-F, 5-T

Q.1. Name two major types of carbohydrates in our food.

Answer: Sugar and starch are two major types of carbohydrates in our food.

Q.2. Why are fats called secondary source of energy?

Answer: When we are short of carbohydrates, our body uses the fat stored under the skin of our body to maintain the supply of energy. That is why fats are called the secondary source of energy.

Q.3. Why are vitamins called the protective foods?

Answer: Vitamins are called the protective foods, because they help in protecting our body against diseases.
Q.4. Write water-soluble vitamins.

Answer: Those vitamins soluble in water are called water soluble vitamins. Example of water soluble vitamins are vitamin $B_{1}, B_{2}, B_{4}, B_{6}, B_{9} (folic acid), B_{12}$ and vitamin C.

Q.5. What are dietary fibres?
Answer: Components of foods which helps our body get rid of undigested food is also known as dietary fibre.

Q.1. What is nutrient? Name three main kinds of nutrients.
Answer: Food contains special components called nutrients.
Three different kinds of nutrients are
i. Carbohydrates,
ii. Proteins and
iii. Vitamins

Q.2. What do you mean by body-building foods? Name three kinds of these food items. Answer: Foods that help our body to grow are known as body-building foods. Three kinds of body-building foods are
i. Soyabeans,
ii. Pulses and
iii. Egg

Q.3. Why are vitamins required in less quantity for our body?
Answer: Most of the vitamins are supplied through foods although some are produced by the body. These are absorbed into the blood stream and excess amount is thrown out of the body. So, vitamins required in less quantity for our body.

Q.4. What are importance of carbohydrates in our food?

Answer: Carbohydrates provide energy to our body so that we are able to perform various activities. It is called energy giving food. They are the primary source of energy.

Q.5. Why are minerals and salts essential in our food? Explain with suitable examples.

Answer: These are chemical compounds required for growth as well as for carrying out certain body functions. Minerals perform important functions such as strengthening of the bones and maintaining a normal heartbeat. For maintaining healthy bones and teeth, we require calcium and phosphorus.

Q.6. If you consume only rice and potato in your diet, how will they affect you?

Answer: Rice and potato are Carbohydrate rich food. Carbohydrate is a very essential nutrient. But, if we consume only rice and potato it may lead to ill-health. Most of the carbohydrates are converted into fat and get deposited in the body. People become overweight and this condition of the body is called obesity. They never remain active and generally suffer from heart problems.

Q.1. How can you test the protein in a food items? Explain with an experiment.

Answer: Protein is an essential nutrient that builds muscle in the body. It’s also easy to test for; here’s how.

Things Required :

• Small quantity of food item, such as egg white.
• Test tubes
• Water
• Copper sulphate solution
• Caustic soda solution Procedure :
• Prepare copper sulphate solution by dissolving 2 gm of copper sulphate in 100 ml of water.
• Prepare caustic soda solution by dissolving 10 gm of caustic soda in 100 ml of water.
• Take a small quantity of food item to be tested for the presence of protein.
• Put it in a test-tube and add 10 drops of water to it.
• Shake it well.
• Put two drops of copper sulphate solution to it and put ten drops of caustic soda solution to the test-tube. Shake the test-tube well and allow the test-tube stand for a few minutes.
• If violet colour change takes place, it indicates the presence of proteins in the food item.

Q.2. What do you mean by vitamins? What are their functions in our body?

Answer: Vitamins are complex organic compounds called the protective foods, because they help in protecting our body against diseases. These are very essential for our body but are required in less quantity.
• They are essential for the normal functioning of our body.
• They keep our skin, teeth, nervous system, bones, digestive system, etc., healthy.
Most of the vitamins are supplied through foods although some are produced by the body. These are absorbed into the blood stream and excess amount is thrown out of the body.

Q.3. What are the functions of water and roughage in our body? Explain properly. Answer: Function of water in our body: 70% of human body weight is made up of water. Water is present in body-cells. Water sustains life processes. Water is required for removal of waste products, transport of materials within the body and to maintain constant body temperature. We require 6-10 glasses of water everyday to keep ourselves healthy. It acts as solvent in which all chemical reactions take place. We also get fluorine from the water.
Function of roughage:
The dietary fibrous content of our food, is called roughage; which prevents constipation. Without roughage, food cannot be digested by our body. It passes down the entire digestive tract, helps in preventing constipation and ensures proper bowel movement. Many doctors believe that a high-fibre diet reduces the risk of heart diseases and bowel cancer.

Q.4. What do you mean by a balanced diet? Explain the harmful effects caused by disorder in diet.
Ans: A diet that contains all the essential nutrients in correct proportion required for our body is known as balanced diet.” A balanced diet should contain the following :
(a) Energy giving food : The food which is rich in carbohydrates and fats, provides energy to our body.
(b) Body-building food : Proteins contained in our food helps our body to grow.
(c) Protective food : Certain foods which contain vitamins and minerals provide protection to our body against diseases.

Harmful effects of disorder in diet

(a) Obesity : Carbohydrate is a very essential nutrient. But, eating too much of it may lead to ill-health. Most of the carbohydrates are converted into fat and get deposited in the body. People become overweight and this condition of the body is called obesity. They never remain active and generally suffer from heart problems.

(b) Malnutrition : While it is important to take food rich in various nutrients, lack of certain types of foods can cause some disorder, called malnutrition.