I. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs).
Q.1. Potato, turnip, carrot, radish and wheat plants are examples of
d) none of these
Answer: a) herbs
Q.2. Plants with very weak stems that cannot stand upright and spread on the ground are called
d) none of these
Answer b) creepers
Q.3. The plant whose root is specialised to absorb water and nutrients from the host, is
d) none of these
Ans: (c) dodder
Q.4. The place from where the branches and leaves arise on the stem is called the
c) tip of the stem
d) none of these
Answer a) node
Q.5. The flat green part of the leaf is known as the
a) leaf blade
c) both (a) and (b)
d) leaf base
Answer: c) both (a) and (b)
II. Fill in the blanks by selecting appropriate words from the given list :
List : Roots, photosynthesis, non-flowering, tendrils, internode
1. The pine tree and thuja plant are called ______________ plants.
2. The special structures used to support climbers are called ______________.
3. ______________ absorb water and mineral salts from the soil which are then transported to the stem and leaves.
4. The portion of the stem between two nodes is called the ______________.
5. In cactus plant, the thick and fleshy stem stores water and produces food by ______________.
Ans: 1-, non-flowering, 2- tendrils, 3- Roots, 4- internode, 5- photosynthesis
III. Match the items of Column A with those of Column B.
Ans: 1-(c ), 2-(d), 3-(b), 4-(e), 5-(a)
IV. Write ‘T’ for the true and ‘F’ for the false statements.
Q.1. A mustard plant possesses a main root from which a number of branch roots
Q.2. Stems of some plants such as potato, onion, ginger, sugarcane, garlic, etc.,
provide us food.
Q.3. The loss of water in the form of water vapours by the green parts of plants is
Q.4. Stamens are the female reproductive parts of a flower.
Q.5. The ripened ovary of a flowering plant, containing seeds is called a fruit.
Answer: 1-T, 2-T, 3-F, 4-F, 5-T
V. Very Short Answer Questions.
Q.1. Define tree.
Answer: Some plants are very tall and have hard, thick and woody stem. The stem has branches in the upper part, much above the ground. Such plants are called trees.
Q.2. Write the kinds of a root.
Answer: Tap Root and fibrous root
Q.3. What do you mean by terminal bud?
Answer: The tip of the stem or a branch bears an apical or terminal bud. It is responsible to increase in the height of the plant body.
Q.4. Define photosynthesis.
Answer : The process by which leaves manufacture food for the plant body is known as photosynthesis.
Q.5. Write the name of food factory of a plant.
Answer: Leaf is called the food factory of a plant.
VI. Short Answer Questions.
Q.1. Show root system and shoot system of a plant with the help of a diagram.
Answer: The underground part of the plant is called the root-system. It consists of a main root and a number of branching roots.
The green part above the ground is called the shoot system. It consists of stem, branches, leaves, buds, flowers and fruits.
Q.2. What do you mean by flowering and non-flowering plants?
Answer: The plant which bear flowers are called flowering plants. Apple tree and rose bush are examples of flowering plants.
The plants which don’t bear flowers are called non-flowering plants. The pine tree and thuja plant never bear flowers and they are called non-flowering plants.
Q.3. What are differences between creepers and climbers?
Answer. Differences between creepers and climbers.
Q.4. Discuss three kinds of plants with their examples.
Answer: Plants are of the following three kinds
(i). Herbs: Plants with green and tender stems are called herbs. They are usually short and may not have many branches. Examples : Potato, turnip, carrot, radish, spinach and wheat plants.
(ii). Shrubs: Some plants have the stem branching out near the base. The stem is hard but not very thick. Such plants are called shrubs.
Examples: Hibiscus, lemon, mustard, rose bushes, etc.
(iii)Trees: Some plants are very tall and have hard, thick and woody stem. The stem has branches in the upper part, much above the ground. Such plants are called trees.
Examples: Mango tree, neem tree, banyan tree, pine tree, etc.
Q.5. Define root and its functions.
Answer: The root is the underground, non-green part of the plant. It grows into the soil, away from sunlight.
Functions of root
(a) Anchoring the plant: Roots fix the plant to the soil and keep the plant vertically upright.
(b) Absorption of water and nutrients from the soil: Roots absorb water and mineral salts from the soil which are then transported to the stem and leaves.
(c) Preventing soil erosion: Roots help in holding the soil together, thus preventing erosion or blowing away of the soil particles.
6. What do you mean by modification of stem? Explain with proper examples.
Answer: Stems of some plants are modified to perform some special functions such as— (a) Storage : In some plants such as potato and ginger, the stem is enlarged and underground. It stores food.
(b) Photosynthesis : In the cactus plant, the stem becomes thick and fleshy. It stores water and produces food by photosynthesis.
VII. Long Answer Questions.
Q.1. What do you mean by stem? What are its functions?
Answer: Stem is a very important part of a plant. It bears flowers, fruits, buds, and leaves. The stem acts as a pipeline, linking the roots and the leaves.
Functions of stem
(a) A stem carries water and mineral salts from the roots to the leaves and flowers.
(b) It keeps the plant upright.
(c) A stem bears leaves, flowers and fruits.
(d) It carries food manufactured in the leaves to roots and other parts of the plant body.
(e) When young, it is green and carries out photosynthesis.
Q.2. What do you mean by leaf? What are its functions?
Answer: The leaf is a flattened, thin, green structure borne on the stem.
Functions of a leaf
(a) Manufacture of food: Leaves manufacture food for the plant body by the process of “photosynthesis”.
(b) Transpiration: The loss of water in the form of water vapours by the green parts of plants is called transpiration. It occurs through the tiny pores, stomata of leaves.
(c) Gaseous exchange: Exchange of gases occurs during respiration and photosynthesis, through tiny pores of the leaves called stomata.
(d) Vegetative propagation: In some plants, leaves bear buds from which new plants grow and develop.
Q.3. Describe parts of a flower with the help of a diagram. Discuss its functions also. Answer: Parts of a flower
Sepals: The outermost part which consists of green leaf like structures are called sepals. These protect the flower when it is still a bud.
Petals: Next to sepals are the petals. These are generally brightly coloured and scented to attract insects that help in pollination.
Stamens: These are the male reproductive parts of a flower.
Carpel: In the centre of the flower rises a flask-shaped structure called the pistil or carpel. This is the female reproductive part of the flower.
Functions of flowers
(a) Role in reproduction and multiplication : Bees and butterflies suck nectar from the flowers, at the same time the pollen grains stick to their legs and get transferred to the stigma of other flowers.
(b) Sources of food : Nectar from flowers serve as a food for insects. Cauliflower and broccoli are the flowers used as vegetables.
(c) Perfumes : Flowers such as rose and lavender yield perfumes or scents.
(d) Spices : Cloves are the dried flower buds of the clove plant.
(e) Aesthetics : Flowers make their surrounding look beautiful.
Q.4. What is the ripened ovary of flowering plant, containing seeds? Discuss its parts with diagram.
Answer: The ripened ovary of a flowering plant, containing seeds is called a fruit. Fruits are an important source of food for human beings. Some fruits contain only one seed while others contain many seeds. A seed contains an embryo which is a baby plant. The plumule of the embryo forms the shoot system. The radicle of the embryo forms the root system. The cotyledons provide nourishment to embryo.