Chapter 09: The Living Organisms and Their Surroundings

    I. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs).
    Q.1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of living things?
    a) Sensitive to stimuli
    b) Do not reproduce
    c) Grow
    d) Respire
    Answer b) Do not reproduce
    Q.2. The body structure of fish is such that it can survive only in
    a) terrestrial habitat
    b) aquatic habitat
    c) aerial habitat
    d) none of these
    Answer b) aquatic habitat
    Q.3. Which of the following animal is adapted to survive in aerial habitat?
    a) Cat
    b) Crow
    c) Fish
    d) Camel
    Answer b) Crow
    Q.4. The plants agave, asparagus, euphorbia, yacca and cactus are called
    a) hydrophytes
    b) mesophytes
    c) xerophytes
    d) none of these
    Answer: c) xerophytes
    Q.5. Which of the following is an example of biotic component?
    a) Stone
    b) Water
    c) Plant
    d) Soil
    Answer c) Plant

    II. Fill in the blanks by selecting appropriate words from the given list :
    List : Camels, adaptation, cold, tropical, beach
    Q.1. When you visit a ________________, you can see turtles, crabs and tortoises on the sand.
    Q.2. ________________ have a series of adaptations that allow them to withstand long periods of time without water.

    Q.3. The ________________ rainforests have more diversity than any other habitat of this planet.
    Q.4. Greenland and Antarctica are ________________ deserts.
    Q.5. The development of characteristics which help an organism to survive in a particular environment is known as ________________.

    Answer: 1- beach,
    2- Camels,
    3- tropical,
    4- cold
    5- adaptation
    III. Match the items of Column A with those of Column B.

    Answer: 1- (c ), 2-(d), 3-(b), 4-(e) , 5-(a)

    IV. Write ‘T’ for the true and ‘F’ for the false statements.
    Q.1. Plants of one region are very different from those found in another region.
    Q.2. The surrounding where an organism lives is called its habitat.
    Q.3. Roots of the plants have a tendency to grow towards gravity and stem tends to grow against it. This response of stems and roots is called phototropism.
    Q.4. Mostly deserts are very hot due to high temperature but some deserts are very cold.
    Q.5. Frog can live in both the habitats, terrestrial and aquatic so, water is not essential for its fertilisation.

    Answer: 1-T, 2-T, 3-F, 4-T, 5-F

    V. Very Short Answer Questions.

    Q.1. Write the names of two organisms which are found in the desert habitat.
    Answer: Camel and cactus

    Q.2. Write the names of two organisms which are found in the freshwater habitat.
    Answer: Ducks and frogs
    Q.3. Define adaptation.
    Answer: The development of characteristics which help an organism to survive in a particular environment is known as adaptation.

    Q.4. Which plants are called mesophytes? Give one example of a mesophytic plant.

    Answer: The plants which grow in moderate conditions of light, temperature, water and oxygen are known as mesophytes. Neem is an example of mesophytic plant.

    Q.5. What do you mean by geotropism?
    Answer: Roots of the plants have a tendency to grow towards gravity and stem tends to grow against it. This response of stem and roots is called geotropism.

    VI. Short Answer Questions.

    Q.1. What is vegetative propagation? Write example of an organism that can reproduce through vegetative propagation.
    Answer: In some plants, leaves bear buds from which new plants grow and develop. This is known as vegetative propagation. Example : Bryophyllum

    Q.2. How can you say movement of vehicles is different from the movement of animals?
    Answer: Movement of vehicles is different from the movement of animals. These objects do not move on their own as living organisms can do. The living beings move in search of food, to protect against enemy and so on.

    Q.3. What is life span? State its variation with examples.
    Answer: All living organisms have a definite life span or life cycle. This means that their life has a beginning and an end. They take birth, grow, reproduce, and eventually die. Their offspring too undergoes the same cyclic changes. The period during which an organism completes its life cycle, is called its life span.

    Q.4. Write three major categories of habitat and explain with proper examples.

    Answer:
    Grass land habitat: Grassland habitat is usually dominated by grasses. The number of shrubs and trees is very few. It gets moderate rain. Grassland provides shelter to a large variety of animals like zebra, giraffe, deer, lion, elephant, etc.

    Desert habitat: Deserts are areas which receive very little rainfall. Thar, Sahara and Kalahari are examples of deserts. Deserts are very hot and dry. Camels, Cactus, date palm tree, etc are examples of organisms found in deserts.

    Aquatic Habitat: It comprises habitats of organisms that live and propagate in water. It includes all the water bodies found on the plant. Fish, turtles, crabs, etc, found in aquatic habitat.

    Q.5. What do you mean by adaptation? Explain with proper examples.

    Answer: The development of characteristics which help an organism to survive in a particular environment is known as adaptation. For example bear and frog go for a long sleep to overcome harsh weather conditions and shortage of food. Fish also shows many adaptations for aquatic life. In addition to streamlined body, they develop gills for breathing in the water in which it sucks in oxygen dissolved in water.

    Q.6. Discuss adaptations in plants on the basis of habitat. Explain with examples.
    Answer: On the basis of habitat, there are three type of adaptations prevalent in plants.
    1. Xerophytes
    2. Hydrophytes
    3. Mesophytes

    Following are the xerophytic adaptations in plants:
    i. The stem is swollen to store water.
    ii. The leaves are modified as spines to minimise water loss.
    iii. The stem is green, so it has chlorophyll. It makes food for itself.
    iv. They have very extensive root systems which go deep into the soil in search of water.
    v. Stomata are few, sunken in pits or covered with fine hairs.
    vi. Their leaves are coated with cuticle to check the loss of water.

    VII. Long Answer Questions.
    Q.1. Describe some terrestrial habitats. Give examples of plants and animals found in each of the terrestrial habitat.

    Answer: Terrestrial habitats The habitats of those animals, which live and propagate on land, are known as terrestrial habitats. Because of the greatest variations in abiotic factors, the land has largest variety of habitats.
    Some of the terrestrial habitats are follows:

    (i) Desert habitats : They get very little rain hence they are dry. They may be hot and dry or cold and dry. Camel and cactus have this type of habitat.

    (ii) Grassland habitats : They get moderate rain. They are partly dry areas of grass with few trees. Examples of organisms are-giraffe, zebra and grasses.

    (iii) Tropical rainforest habitats : They get heavy rain. They are warm and evergreen. Examples of organisms are snakes, trees, monkey, etc.

    (iv) Tundra habitats : They are very cold, dry and covered with snow. Example of organisms are polar bear, some grasses, reindeer and penguin.

    Q.2. Write main characteristics of the living beings. Discuss them briefly.

    Answer: Main characteristics of the living beings as follows:

    (a) Nutrition: In order to stay alive, all living organisms need food. Most of the plants
    (containing chlorophyll) prepare their food within their bodies using water, carbon dioxide and chlorophyll in the presence of sunlight.

    (b) Growth: All living things grow. They have the ability to grow. A seedling grows into a tree within a few years. A new born baby becomes an adult within a span of 20 years.

    (c) Respiration: All living beings (plants or animals) need energy for their life-activities. This energy is obtained from the food. They need oxygen for releasing the energy from the food, through the process of respiration.

    (d) Excretion: All living things have ability to excrete waste materials of body. As you know all living things take food to fulfil the requirement of energy. But the amount of food they eat is not completely used up by them. The unused parts have to be removed by the body as wastes.

    (e) Reproduction: All living organisms in nature — animals, plants and microorganisms reproduce their own kinds.

    (f) Movement or locomotion: All living things show movement. Most of the animals can move from one place to another but there are some animals such as sponge and corals that cannot move from one place to another.

    Most of the plants are anchored in soil, hence they cannot move from one place to another but they show other different types of movements such as the stem of a plant moves towards sunlight, the roots grow downwards in the soil, opening and closing of flowers, etc.

    (h) Life span : All living organisms have a definite life span or life cycle. This means that their life has a beginning and an end. They take birth, grow, reproduce, and eventually die. Their offspring too undergoes the same cyclic changes.

    Q.3. Describe some aquatic habitats. Give examples of plants and animals found in each of the aquatic habitat.

    Answer: Aquatic habitats of organisms that live and propagate in water. Aquatic habitats are further subdivided into the following:

    (i) Freshwater habitat: Rivers, lakes, ponds, and streams are examples of freshwater habitat. Animals like ducks, frogs, and insects live on the surface of the pond or in the area surrounding it. Some plants, such as lotus can be seen floating on the surface of the pond.

    (ii) Marine habitat: Oceans and seas form the largest habitat on the planet for plankton to the largest animal in the world, the blue whale. Example of animals of marine habitat: Plankton, jellyfish, crab, starfish, dolphin, clownfish, etc.

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