Chapter 16: Garbage In, Garbage Out

    I. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs).
    Q.1. Anything which have lost their values and we throw away, are called
    a) waste
    b) discarded material
    c) disposed material
    d) none of these
    Answer: a) waste
    Q.2. The waste substances which undergo degradation by the action of decomposers, are called
    a) Non-biodegradable wastes
    b) biodegradable wastes
    c) both (a) and (b)
    d) none of these
    Answer: b) biodegradable wastes
    Q.3. The conversion of solid waste into manure is called
    a) repairing
    b) reducing
    c) composting
    d) none of these
    Answer: c) composting
    Q.4. The large areas used for waste disposal are called
    a) playground
    b) garbage land
    c) disposal land
    d) landfills
    Answer: d) landfills
    Q.5. Composting can be done with the help of
    a) bacteria
    b) fungi
    c) earthworm
    d) parasites
    Answer: a) bacteria
    II. Fill in the blanks by selecting appropriate words from the given list :
    List : Garbage, non-biodegradable, green, reused, plants, animals
    Q.1. The disposal of ______________ wastes is a big problem nowadays.
    Q.2. All dead ___________ and ___________ are examples of biodegradable waste.
    Q.3. Biodegradable waste can be ______________ by the method of composting.
    Q.4. ______________ is put in the landfill and covered with soil so that it can be decomposed.
    Q.5. The ______________ wastebin is used for biodegradable wastes such as kitchen wastes.

    Answer: 1- non-biodegradable,
    2- plants, animals
    3- reused,
    4- Garbage,
    5- green

    III. Match the items of Column A with those of Column B.

    Answer: 1-(c), 2- (d), 3-(b), 4- (e) , 5-(a )

    IV. Write ‘T’ for the true and ‘F’ for the false statements.
    Q.1. The environment benefits much from recycling the paper.
    Q.2. Plastic has become a threat to environment and public health.
    Q.3. Polythene bags do not create a big problem in garbage disposal.
    Q.4. The blue coloured wastebin is provided for biodegradable wastes.
    Q.5. The burning of stalks, husks and dried leaves produces smokes, gases and dust particles that are very harmful to our health.
    Answer: 1-T, 2-T, 3-F, 4-F, 5-T

    V. Very Short Answer Questions.
    Q.1. What is waste?
    Answer: Waste is anything which we throw away.
    Q.2. What are the types of wastes?
    Answer: There are two types of wastes — Biodegradable and Non-biodegradable.

    Q.3. Name two biodegradable wastes.
    Answer: Human and animal excreta, leaves,
    Q.4. Name two non-biodegradable wastes.
    Answer: Plastic, Glass
    Q.5. By which method biodegradable waste can be recycled?
    Answer: Biodegradable waste can be recycled by the method of composting.

    VI. Short Answer Questions.

    Q.1. Write the three ways by which you can reduce the waste. Answer:
    i. Buy only those things which you need.
    ii. Avoid the use of plastic bags.
    iii. Use both sides of paper.
    Q.2. Why are two separate colours dustbin placed at public places in different cities? Answer: The blue coloured wastebini provided for nonbiodegradable wastes such as plastic, metal, glass, etc., while the green wastebin is used for biodegradable wastes such as kitchen wastes.

    Q.3. What is adverse effect by the burning of remaining part of the crop plant?
    Answer: Burning of these produces smoke, gases and dust particles that are very harmful to our health. So, we should try to avoid and also need to stop these practices.

    Q.4. What do you mean by biodegradable and non-biodgradable wastes? Explain briefly.
    Answer: Biodegradable wastes are those in which waste substances undergo degradation by the action of decomposers. Nonbiodegradable wastes are those in which waste substances cannot be broken down by decomposers. Plastic, metal and glass are examples of it.

    Q.5. How can you manage wastes? Discuss some practices for it.
    Answer:
    (a) By reducing its amount : (b) By reusing the waste :
    (c) By recycling the waste
    Q.6. How can biodegrable solid waste be recycled? Discuss the process briefly.
    Answer: The wastes that are biodegradable such as kitchen wastes, food wastes, vegetable peels, other plant and animal wastes can be converted into manure (compost) by burying them in the pits with the help of some microorganisms, called composting.

    VII. Long Answer Questions.
    1. What do you mean by vermicomposting? Describe the process briefly.
    Ans: The wastes that are biodegradable such as kitchen wastes, food wastes, vegetable peels, other plant and animal wastes can be converted into manure (compost) by burying them in the pits with the help of earthworm also. This process is called vermicomposting. The product of this process is called vermicompost. Vermicompost is a nutrient rich, natural fertiliser and soil conditioner. That is why earthworm is called the farmer’s friend.
    2. (a) What do you understand by recycling of wastes?
    (b) Give your opinion on plastic that how it is considered as a boon or curse.

    Ans a) We can collect the materials like paper, glass, metal and separate them. After that sent to recycling plants, where these are used to make new products. Biodegradable waste can be recycled by the method of composting. The conversion of solid waste into manure is called composting.
    b) When plastics were introduced, they were considered as a wonder material. But, today plastic has become a threat to environment and public health. Modern age is an age of plastic. Have a look around yourself, you will find 75% things around you are either made of plastic or used in them; for example— toys, shoes, bags, pens, comb, etc. Parts of a bus, car, radio, television, mobiles, computers, refrigerator and scooter are also made of plastic. We store cooked food items in plastic boxes, this practice is undesirable and harmful to our health. However, all kinds of plastic give out harmful gases, upon heating or burning. These gases cause many acute diseases like cancer. So, containers used for storing poisonous substances should be recycled separately. And these recycled plastics should not be used to make plastic bags. Now, you clearly understood why polythene bags create a big problem in garbage disposal. Therefore, the more garbage generated the more difficult it will be to get rid off. Thus, plastic–a boon or a curse depends on how it is used.

    3. Discuss the ways that how to minimise the overuse of plastic. Describe the main solution of biodegradable plastic (waste) in your opinion.

    Ans: How to minimise the overuse of plastic (a) Use of plastic should be minimum, we should reuse the plastic bags for marketing purpose only. It may not bring about adverse effects.

    (b) We must not use plastic bags to store food items.
    (c) We should go for marketing with cotton or jute bags and insist the shopkeeper to give you purchased articles in paper bags and not in plastic bags.
    (d) After use, keep plastic bags in the dustbin and do not throw them here and there. (e) We must stop the practice of collecting wastes or garbage in plastic bag and throw it anywhere.
    (f) Reuse the softdrinks plastic bottles for storing water.

    Recycling of plastic or any other nonbiodegradable waste is the only solution. It involves the collection of used and directed materials, and processing them to make new products. The used-up plastic items should be sold to the Kabadiwala who send them to recycling plant to form new items.

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