Solved examples for class 7 science : Chapter 7

    Weather, Climate and Adaptations of Animals to Climate

    I. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs).
    Temperature, humidity, wind and other atmospheric conditions are called the elements of
    a) weather
    b) climate
    c) environment
    d) none of these
    Answer: (a) weather
    Q.1. The scientists who measure and forecast weather are called
    a) metrologists
    b) astronomers
    c) meteorologists
    d) none of these

    Answer: (c) meteorologists
    Q.2. The measure of water vapour present in air is called
    a) Temperature
    b) rainfall
    c) humidity
    d) none of these

    Answer: c) humidity
    Q.3. Rainfall is collected and measured in
    a) Rainometer
    b) Rain gauge
    c) Hygrometer
    d) Anemometer
    Answer: b) Rain gauge

    Q.4. Arctic fox grows a white coat in winter and a speckled or brown coat in summer to match their
    a) climate
    b) weather
    c) environment
    d) surroundings
    Answer: (d) surroundings
    II. Fill in the blanks by selecting appropriate words from the given list : List : Climate, Weather, sun, hygrometer, ocean

    Q.1. ______________ is a complex phenomenon that can vary over a short period.

    Q.2. Relative humidity is measured with the help of ______________.

    Q.3. ______________ describes a region’s weather conditions over a long period.

    Q.4. The ______________ can prevent a coastal region from getting very hot or very cold.

    Q.5. The ______________ is the major factor responsible for the changes in the weather condition.

    Answer:
    1- Weather,
    2- hygrometer,
    3- Climate,
    4- ocean,
    5- sun
    IV. Match the items of Column A with those of column B.

    Column
    A                                                                            

            Column B  

    1. Desert rats  
                      

     (a) Tropical rainforest

    2. A
    summer sleep to cope up with heat.       

      (b)
    Living in burrows

    3. The region represented by hot and wet climate.  

    (c) Siberian
    crane 

    4. The
    region characterised by extreme cold climate.   

    (d)
    Aestivation 

    5. One of the migratory birds that comes to Bharatpur  in Rajasthan and Sultanpur in Haryana from
    Siberia.

     (e) Polar region

    1- (b) , 2- d , 3- a, 4-e 5-c
    IV. Write ‘T’ for the true and ‘F’ for the false statements.
    Q.1. All living beings are influenced by atmospheric conditions around them.
    Q.2. Climate can change within minutes.
    Q.3. The weather reports are prepared by the Meteorological Department of the Government.
    Q.4. A region closer to equator will get much heat and hence will be comparatively hot.
    Q.5. In contrast to eastern region of India, western region receives rain for most of the year, therefore climate of western region is wet.

    Answer: 1-T 2-F, 3-T, 4-T, 5-F

    V. Very Short Answer Questions.
    Q.1. What are the responsible elements for the weather change?

    Answer: Temperature, humidity, rainfall and wind
    Q.2. Who gives the weather report?
    Answer: The weather reports are given by the Meteorological Department of the Government.
    Q.3. Name the factor responsible for producing wind.
    Answer. Sun’s heat

    Q.4. Name three animals living in desert. Ans: Rats, snakes and camels
    Q.5. Name three animals living in polar region.
    Answer: Polar Bear Penguin and Arctic fox
    VI. Short Answer Questions.
    Q.1. Define weather.

    Answer: All living beings are influenced by atmospheric conditions around them.
    Temperature, humidity, rainfall and wind speed are the various atmospheric conditions. The day-to-day changes in these conditions make up the weather.

    Q.2. What is humidity? How is it measured?

    Answer: Humidity is a measure of water vapour present in air: At a particular temperature, air can hold a certain amount of water vapour: Relative humidity in the air is expressed as a percentage of maximum amount of water vapour it can hold at a particular temperature. Relative humidity is measured with the help of hygrometer:
    Q.3. Write the factors on which climate depends.
    Answer: Every region has its own climate. This depends upon

    • The distance from the equator.
    • Altitude
    • Closeness to sea
    Q.4. (a) How does weather change?
    (b) How is the weather report prepared?
    Answer (a) The day to day weather changes depend on the change in the temperature, humidity, rainfall and winds.

    (b) The weather reports are prepared by the Meteorological Department of the Government. They collect the data on temperature, humidity, wind, etc., and make a weather report.

    Q.5. Discuss the elements of weather briefly.

    Answer: Elements of weather are temperature, humidity, rainfall and wind.

    Temperature: The early mornings are quite pleasant even in summer. As the day advances, it becomes warmer. The slanting sun rays of morning do not heat up the ground and air as much as direct rays around noon do. Besides it takes some time for the ground and air to become warm after the cool night.

    Humidity : Humidity is a measure of water vapour present in air: At a particular temperature, air can hold a certain amount of water vapour:

    Rainfall: Rainfall is collected in a rain gauge. Rain falling into the funnel trickles into a jar. At the end of the day the jar is emptied into a measuring cylinder that gives the reading of a day’s total rainfall.

    Wind : The sun’s heat produces winds. Wind speed is measured with the help of an instrument called anemometer.

    Q.6. What do you mean by climate? Write the names of factors which influence it.

    Answer: Climate describes a region’s weather conditions over a long period of time [about 25 years). Every region has its own climate.
    A region closer to equator will get much heat and hence will be comparatively hot. Landscape also influences climate. High mountain regions such as Himalayas are cooler than nearby low-lying places. The ocean can prevent a coastal region from getting very hot or very cold.

    VII. Long Answer Questions.
    Q.1. What do you understand by hot and dry climate? What special characteristics make animals to cope up with this climate?
    Answer: In Rajasthan, the temperature is very high during the summers. But during winters the temperature goes down. This region shows a lot of variation in the temperature. Rainfall is also very poor in this region. This region has typical desert climate which is hot and dry.

    Following are the characteristics make animals to cope up with hot and dry climate:
    • In hot and dry climate, animals are adapted to conserve water: o Many animals that Live in deserts are nocturnal. They search their food at night when it is less hot.
    • Rats and other small animals in the desert stay in burrows during the day. o Snakes, salamanders, tortoises go into a summer sleep [aestivation] to cope up with heat.
    • Desert animals excrete very concentrated urine to reduce the Loss of water. They can drink large quantity of water at a time.
    • Camels have wide feet that help them to walk on sand without sinking into it. Hump of camel is a reservoir of fat while water is stored in blood. A camel can go a week or more without water and it can Last for several months without food.

    Q.2. What do you mean by tropical rainforest? What special characteristics make animals to survive in this region?

    Answer: Tropical rainforest- This region is represented by hot and wet climate. This region is located around the equator: The temperature of this region is more than 15°C in winter and temperature may cross 40°C during summers. Days and nights are almost equal in length throughout the year: High temperature and excessive rainfall support wide variety of animals and plants.
    So, there is an intense competition for food and shelter: Animals present in tropical rainforest are adapted to minimise the competition for food and shelter:

    • Red eyed frog has sticky pads on its feet that help it to climb on the trees.
    • Monkeys have long tails for grasping branches of the tree. They also use their arms and legs to swing from one tree to another.
    • Toucan, a tropical bird possesses a long and large beak. Beak helps it to reach the fruit of weak branches.
    • Many animals have sharp eyesight, sensitive hearing and thick spine as an adaptation. Their skin colour may help them to hide in the surroundings or they may change their skin colour similar to that of the background to hide itself.
    • Elephant has a big trunk that is modified upper lip and nose. Because of the presence of a trunk elephant has a good sense of smell. It also helps in picking up of food. Tusks of elephant are modified teeth that help in tearing of bark of trees.

    Q.3. What do you understand by polar region? Write the special characteristics of animals which help them to survive in this region.
    Answer: Polar region is characterised by extreme cold climate. Polar Regions are covered
    with snow and check become very cold for most of the year: In winter, temperature can be low as –37 °C. In Polar Regions, sun rises for six months and for the other six months the sun does not rise.

    Following are the special characteristics of animals which help them to survive in this region.
    • Animals that live in cold areas usually have adaptations to keep their bodies warm.
    • They have two thick layers of fur and a layer of fat under their skin. Fat layer and fur works as an insulator from the cold.
    • Most of the animals like polar bear, arctic hares have white or light coloured fur. It helps them blend with their surroundings and not to be noticed by their predators or prey.
    • Arctic fox grows a white coat in winter and a speckled or brown coat in summer to match their surroundings.
    • Polar bears have wide and large paws that help in swimming under water and also help to walk on snow. Polar bears also have strong sense of smell. It helps the bear to locate and catch its prey.
    • Penguins are also white in colour that help to blend them with their surroundings Like polar bear. They also have thick skin and a thick Layer of fat under the skin to protect from the cold.

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