Solved examples for class 8 science : Chapter 7

    Conservation of Plants and Animals

    I. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs).
    Q.1. Which of the following day is celebrated as the International Day for Biological Diversity?
    a) 22 March
    b) 22 April
    c) 22 May
    d) none of these

    Answer. c) 22 May

    Q.2. All the animals and plants living in their natural habitats independently, away from human population make up the
    a) species
    b) wildlife
    c) ecosystem
    d) none of these

    Answer. b) wildlife

    Q.3. Species of plants and animals found exclusively in a particular area are called
    a) endemic species
    b) extinct species
    c) endangered species
    d) none of these

    Answer. a) endemic species

    Q.4. Species which are existing but are very low in number are known as
    a) extinct species
    b) rare species
    c) endangered species
    d) none of these

    Answer. (b) rare species

    Q.5. The areas which are strictly reserved for the betterment of wildlife, is
    a) biosphere reserve
    b) national park
    c) wildlife sanctuaries
    d) all of these

    Answer. b) national park

    II. Fill in the blanks by selecting appropriate words from the given list : List : endemic, Nilgiri, Satpura, species, zoos, sanctuaries

    Q.1. Members of a………………….. have common characteristics.
    Q.2. A particular type of animal or plant may be……………………….. to a zone or a state or a country.
    Q.3. ………………….. National Park is famous for the finest Indian teak wood found in this forest.
    Q.4. ……………………………..biosphere reserve was the first biosphere reserve established in India on August 1, 1986.
    Q.5. Animals in ………………….. live freely unlike a ………………………. where they are kept in captivity.

    Answer.
    1- species,
    2- endemic,
    3- Satpura,
    4- Nilgiri,
    5- sanctuaries, zoos

    III. Match the items of Column A with those of Column B.


    Answer. 1-e, 2-a, 3-d, 4-b, 5-c,

    IV. Write ‘T’ for the true and ‘F’ for the false statements.
    1. Several measures are being taken to protect the environment.
    2. Construction of dams and reservoirs helps the natural habitats of wildlife.
    3. Animals in sanctuaries live freely unlike a zoo where they are kept in captivity.
    4. Clearing of forests and using that land for other purposes is called afforestation.
    5. Migration refers to the seasonal journeys undertaken by many animals.

    Answer. 1-T, 2-F, 3-T, 4-F, 5-T,

    V. Very Short Answer Questions.

    Q.1. Name two endangered species.

    Answer: Asiatic lion and blue whale.

    Q.2. Name two rare species.
    Answer: Golden cat and monk seal

    1. Define Red Data Book.
    Answer: Red Data Books are the source books maintained by IUCN which contains a record of all threatened species of plants and animals which are in danger of extinction.

    2. Define Forest Acts.
    Answer: Government of India passes several acts which aim to preserve and conserve natural forests and meeting basic needs of people living in or nearby the forests known as forest acts.

    3. What is Tiger Protection Force?
    Answer: Tiger Protection Force to combat poachers and funded relocation of villagers to minimize human-tiger conflicts.

    VI. Short Answer Questions.
    Q.1. What do you understand by biodiversity?
    Answer: Biodiversity is the variety and diversity of all life on land, in water, including the places or ecosystems where they live.

    Q.2. Write the difference between sanctuaries and zoos.
    Answer: Sanctuaries are different from zoos. Animals in sanctuaries live freely where as in a zoo where they are kept in captivity.

    Q.3. Why do animals migrate?
    Answer: Animals migrate in response to change in food availability, habitat or weather.

    Q.4. What do you mean by the terms species, ecosystem and flora and fauna? Discuss significance of biodiversity.

    Answer: Species : A group of populations which are capable of inter breeding with each other and reproduce a fertile or viable offspring within their population is called a species.
    Ecosystem: All the living and non-living components and their interactions with each other form an ecosystem.
    Flora and Fauna : The plants and animals found in a particular area are termed flora and fauna of that area.

    Q.5. What are the reasons for loss of biodiversity?
    Answer: Reasons for loss of biodiversity
    • Growing population of urbanisation: Human population is growing at a very fast rate and urbanisation is leading to all types of pollution.
    • Overgrazing: Overgrazing by animals makes the fertile lands barren and inhospitable for other organisms.
    • Construction of dams and reservoirs destroys the natural habitats of wildlife.
    • Acid rain due to excessive pollution and other pollutants cause severe damage to wildlife and aquatic life.
    • Hunting for commercial purposes and recreation causes severe destruction to
    wildlife.

    Q.6. What do you understand by Project Tiger? Explain briefly.

    Answer: Project Tiger is a wildlife conservation project initiated in India in 1972 to protect the Royal Bengal Tigers. There were approximately 40,000 tigers in India in 1900 but a tiger census in 1972 revealed only 1 ,827 tigers. A number of tiger reserves were set up in various states to maintain tiger population in their natural environment. In 2007, there were more than 40 Project Tiger wildlife reserves covering an area of 37,761 km2.

    VII. Long Answer Questions.

    Q.1. Why is conservation of forest and wildlife needed? Discuss the categories of species briefly. What are the steps taken for their conservation?

    Answer: With all the dangers to loss of biodiversity it has become highly important to conservation of forest and wildlife
    Threatened Species : Some species of plants and animals have greatly reduced in number in their natural habitat. They are either at the edge of extinction or likely to become extinct such species are called threatened species.

    Endangered Species : These are the species which are in danger of extinction in the near future. If the unfavourable factors for these are allowed to continue they would become extinct. For e.g. asiatic lion, blue whale, great Indian bustard.

    Vulnerable Species : These are the species which are likely to become endangered in the presence of the causative factors, e.g., black buck, golden langur, chinkara deer, etc.

    Rare Species : Species which are existing but are very low in number are known as rare species. For e.g., golden cat, monk seal, Indian pied hornbill, gestless Himalayan porcupine, etc.

    Extinct Species : These are the species of plants and animals which have been lost forever.
    A species once lost cannot be retrieved. For e.g., Siberian tiger, Indian cheetah, golden eagle, etc. Sarpgandha and Brahmakamal are such plants.

    Steps for Conservation:
    • Awareness should be spread among the people about the importance of wildlife and its conservation.
    • Special acts and Laws should be enforced for protecting wildlife. Deforestation and hunting should be strictly prohibited.
    • Special protected areas should be developed to protect all types of wildlife.
    • Plants and animals should be allowed to Live freely in their natural habitats.
    • What do you mean by protected areas? Discuss kinds of protected areas set up by the government as National parks, sanctuaries and biosphere reserves.

    Q.2. What is deforestation? What are its causes and consequences? Define reforestation and recycling paper briefly.

    Answer: Clearing of forests and using that land for other purposes is called deforestation.

    Causes of Deforestation:
    • Procuring land for cultivation.
    • Increased rate of urbanisation and clearing of forests to build roads.
    • Utilisation of land for industries.
    • Multiple uses of wood in furniture, paper; etc.
    • Overgrazing by animals.
    • Shifting cultivation in which land is cultivated for 2-3 years and Left after depletion of fertility to move on to other fertile place is also a contributing factor to deforestation.
    • Firewood collection.

    Reforestation is the process of regenerating or replanting forest areas that have been destroyed or damaged for the benefits of mankind.
    It takes about 17 trees to make one tonne of paper. Recycling of paper is one of the best option to minimise cutting of forests for paper. A paper can be recycled 5-7 times. This also saves us from the hazardous effects of chemicals used in making paper.

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