# NCERT Class VIII: Science-Exercise Solutions

### Chapter 02-Microorganisms: Friend and Foe-Exercise Solutions

NCERT Book Page Number-29
Question 1:
Q.1. Fill in the blanks:
(a) Microorganisms can be seen with the help of a _________.
(b) Blue green algae fix ________ directly from air to enhance fertility of soil.
(c) Alcohol is produced with the help of _________.
(d) Cholera is caused by ________.
(a) Microorganisms can be seen with the help of a _ microscope _.
(b) Blue green algae fix nitrogen directly from air to enhance fertility of soil.
(c) Alcohol is produced with the help of yeast .
(d) Cholera is caused by bacteria .

Q.2. Tick $(\checkmark)$ the correct answer:
(a) Yeast is used in the production of
(i) sugar
(ii) alcohol
(iii) hydrochloric acid
(iv) oxygen
(b) The following is an antibiotic
(i) Sodium bicarbonate
(ii) Streptomycin
(iii) Alcohol
(iv) Yeast
(c) Carrier of malaria-causing protozoan is
(i) female Anopheles mosquito
(ii) cockroach
(iii) housefly
(iv) butterfly
(d) The most common carrier of communicable diseases is
(i) ant
(ii) housefly
(iii) dragonfly
(iv) spider
(e) The bread or idli dough rises because of
(i) heat
(ii) grinding
(iii) growth of yeast cells
(f) The process of conversion of sugar into alcohol is called
(i) nitrogen fixation
(ii) moulding
(iii) fermentation
(iv) infection
(a) Yeast is used in the production of
(i) sugar
(ii) alcohol $(\checkmark)$
(iii) hydrochloric acid
(iv) oxygen
(b) The following is an antibiotic
(i) Sodium bicarbonate
(ii) Streptomycin$(\checkmark)$
(iii) Alcohol
(iv) Yeast
(c) Carrier of malaria-causing protozoan is
(i) female Anopheles mosquito$(\checkmark)$
(ii) cockroach
(iii) housefly
(iv) butterfly
(d) The most common carrier of communicable diseases is
(i) ant
(ii) housefly$(\checkmark)$
(iii) dragonfly
(iv) spider
(e) The bread or idli dough rises because of
(i) heat
(ii) grinding
(iii) growth of yeast cells $(\checkmark)$
(f) The process of conversion of sugar into alcohol is called
(i) nitrogen fixation
(ii) moulding
(iii) fermentation $(\checkmark)$
(iv) infection

Q.3. Match the organisms in Column I with their action in Column II.

Q.4. Can microorganisms be seen with the naked eye? If not, how can they be seen?
Micro-organisms are too small to be seen through naked eyes. They can be seen with the help of a magnifying glass or microscope.
For example, fungus that grows on bread is so small that it can be seen only with the help of a magnifying glass or microscope.
NCERT Book Page Number-30
Q.5. What are the major groups of microorganisms?
There are five major groups of micro-organisms:
(i) Bacteria − They are single celled disease-causing micro-organisms. They can be spiral or rod- shaped.
(ii) Fungi − They are mostly multicellular disease-causing microbes. Bread moulds are common examples of fungi.
(iii) Protozoa − They mainly include organisms such as Amoeba, Plasmodium,etc. They can be unicellular or multicellular.
(iv) Algae − They include multicellular, photosynthetic organisms such as Spirogyra, Chlamydomonas, etc.

Q.6. Name the microorganisms which can fix atmospheric nitrogen in the soil.
Answer: Bacteria such as Rhizobium and certain blue-green algae present in the soil can fix atmospheric nitrogen and convert it into usable nitrogenous compounds. These nitrogenous compounds can be easily utilized by plants for the synthesis of plant proteins and other compounds.

Q.7. Write 10 lines on the usefulness of microorganisms in our lives.
Answer: Micro-organisms are too small to be seen through naked eyes. However, they are vital to plants and the environment.
Importance of micro-organisms:
They are used in winemaking, baking, pickling, and other food making processes.
Alcoholic fermentation by yeast is widely used in the preparation of wine and bread. A bacterium Lactobacillus, promotes the formation of curd.
Microbes are used to reduce pollution. For example, decomposers such as bacteria and fungi break down dead bodies and excreta to form inorganic compounds, which can be absorbed by plants.
They are used to increase the soil fertility by fixing the atmospheric nitrogen with the help of bacterium Rhizobium and some other blue-green algae.
Microbes also play an important role in the preparation of medicines. Antibiotics are chemicals produced by micro-organisms to kill bacteria. Streptomycin, for example, is an antibiotic.
Certain microbes are also used in the biological treatment of sewage and industrial effluents.

Q.8. Write a short paragraph on the harms caused by microorganisms.